B. dissolved gases
C. silica content
The only word among the available words that do not fit the pattern would be temperature.
Words and relationship
Ash, dissolved gases, and silica content are similar in the way that all of them are made up of matter.
Matter refers to any substance with weight and is able to occupy space. Ash is made from solid particles. dissolved gases are gases, and silica contents are also from solids.
Temperature, on the other hand, is a scalar quantity. It is not something that can be held or seen. It has no weight and neither does it occupy space.
More on matter can be found here: https://brainacademy.pro/question/4513444